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## Analysis at Different Temperatures |

All input data for SPICE is assumed to have been measured at a nominal temperature of 27 C, which can be changed by use of the TNOM parameter on the .OPTION control line. This value can further be overridden for any device which models temperature effects by specifying the TNOM parameter on the model itself. The circuit simulation is performed at a temperature of 27 C, unless overridden by a TEMP parameter on the .OPTION control line. Individual instances may further override the circuit temperature through the specification of a TEMP parameter on the instance.

Temperature dependent support is provided for resistors, diodes, JFETs, BJTs, and level 1, 2, and 3 MOSFETs. BSIM (levels 4 and 5) MOSFETs have an alternate temperature dependency scheme which adjusts all of the model parameters before input to SPICE. For details of the BSIM temperature adjustment, see [6] and [7].

Temperature appears explicitly in the exponential terms of the BJT and diode model equations. In addition, saturation currents have a built-in temperature dependence. The temperature dependence of the saturation current in the BJT models is determined by:

where k is Boltzmann's constant, q is the electronic charge, e.g. is the energy gap which is a model parameter, and XTI is the saturation current temperature exponent (also a model parameter, and usually equal to 3).

The temperature dependence of forward and reverse beta is according to the formula:

where T1 and T0 are in degrees Kelvin, and XTB is a user-supplied model parameter. Temperature effects on beta are carried out by appropriate adjustment to the values of F, ISE, R, and ISC (spice model parameters BF, ISE, BR, and ISC, respectively).

Temperature dependence of the saturation current in the junction diode model is determined by:

where N is the emission coefficient, which is a model parameter, and the other symbols have the same meaning as above. Note that for Schottky barrier diodes, the value of the saturation current temperature exponent, XTI, is usually 2.

Temperature appears explicitly in the value of junction potential, (in spice PHI), for all the device models. The temperature dependence is determined by:

where k is Boltzmann's constant, q is the electronic charge, Na is the acceptor impurity density, Nd is the donor impurity density, Ni is the intrinsic carrier concentration, and Eg is the energy gap.

Temperature appears explicitly in the value of surface mobility, 0 (or UO), for the MOSFET model. The temperature dependence is determined by:

The effects of temperature on resistors is modeled by the formula:

where T is the circuit temperature, T0 is the nominal temperature, and TC1 and TC2 are the first- and second-order temperature coefficients.