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## Lossless Transmission Lines |

General form:

TXXXXXXX N1 N2 N3 N4 Z0=VALUE <TD=VALUE> <F=FREQ

<NL=NRMLEN>>

+ <IC;=V1, I1, V2, I2>

Examples:

T1 1 0 2 0 Z0=50 TD=10NS

N1 and N2 are the nodes at port 1; N3 and N4 are the nodes at port 2. Z0 is the characteristic impedance. The length of the line may be expressed in either of two forms. The transmission delay, TD, may be specified directly (as TD=10ns, for example). Alternatively, a frequency F may be given, together with NL, the normalized electrical length of the transmission line with respect to the wavelength in the line at the frequency F. If a frequency is specified but NL is omitted, 0.25 is assumed (that is, the frequency is assumed to be the quarter-wave frequency). Note that although both forms for expressing the line length are indicated as optional, one of the two must be specified.

Note that this element models only one propagating mode. If all four nodes are distinct in the actual circuit, then two modes may be excited. To simulate such a situation, two transmission-line elements are required. (see the example in \\*(AA for further clarification.)

The (optional) initial condition specification consists of the voltage and current at each of the transmission line ports. Note that the initial conditions (if any) apply 'only' if the UIC option is specified on the .TRAN control line.

Note that a lossy transmission line (see below) with zero loss may be more accurate than than the lossless transmission line due to implementation details.